Phillip II – Philip II, known as Philip Augustus (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet. Philip’s predecessors had been known as kings of the Franks, but from 1190 onward, Philip became the first French monarch to style himself “King of France.” The son of King Louis VII and his third wife, Adèle of Champagne, he was originally nicknamed Dieudonné “God-given” because he was the first son of Louis VII, born late in his father’s life. Philip was given the nickname “Augustus” by the chronicler Rigord for having extended the Crown lands of France so remarkably Philip travelled to the Holy Land to participate in the Third Crusade of 1189–1192 with King Richard I of England and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. His army left Vézelay on 1 July 1190. At first, the French and English crusaders travelled together, but the armies split at Lyon, after Richard decided to go by sea, whereas Philip took the overland route through the Alps to Genoa. The French and English armies were reunited in Messina, where they wintered together. On 30 March 1191, the French set sail for the Holy Land and Philip arrived on 20 May. He then marched to Acre, which was already under siege by a lesser contingent of crusaders, and started to construct siege equipment before Richard arrived on 8 June. By the time Acre surrendered on 12 July, Philip was severely ill with dysentery, which reduced his zeal noticeably. Ties with Richard were further strained after the latter acted in a haughty manner once Acre fell to the crusaders. Philip decided to leave for France shortly afterwards to secure his kingdom following the death of Philip Count of Flanders. This decision did not endear him to Richard and the two went to war upon Richards release from captivity, after he had been captured and imprisoned returning from the 3rd crusade, by Leopold V Duke of Austria.
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